Kratom | Albania
The Albanian Law on the Prevention and War Against Substances Trafficking (Narcotic or Psychotropic) is very generic. Kratom is fully legal in Albania, even though there is no much information about the plant in Albanese language.
National drug strategy and laws
The Strategy sets out activities for the development of a treatment system, within which the primary healthcare specialists would provide early diagnostic and referral services to more specialised care and rehabilitation. The non-governmental service providers are viewed as indispensable partners for provision of drug treatment and it is planned to extend healthcare insurance schemes to their drug treatment services as well.
Nevertheless, treatment availability remains fairly limited in Albania, and its main focus is opioid substitution treatment with methadone. Buprenorphine treatment, heroin-assisted treatment including, as trials, slow-release morphine, and buprenorphine/naloxone combination treatment are not yet available. Detoxification, including the indispensable basic medications, is not covered by the national health insurance agency. Psychosocial interventions are rarely available.
The Albanian drug treatment system has one specialised drug treatment centre, the Addictology and Clinical Toxicology Service of the TUHC. This service covers the whole country, provides mainly detoxification and overdose treatment, and serves as both a hospital inpatient unit and an outpatient unit. In addition two non-profit and non-public centres provide treatment to drug users.
Methadone was registered in Albania in 2005. The MMT is provided through financial support from the Global Fund to Fight AIDS, Tuberculosis and Malaria, and it is free of charge to the clients at Aksion Plus centres. Meanwhile, the methadone provided by the Addictology and Clinical Toxicology Service of the TUHC is neither free of charge nor reimbursed by the national health insurance agency, and it is used only for detoxification purposes.
NATIONAL TREATMENT POLICY
In 2011, the Interministerial Committee for the Fight against Drugs, supported by a secretariat and the Office of the National Drug Information System under the auspices of the Institute of Health, was established by a decision of the Council of Ministers.The current National Strategy against Drugs 2017-21 is applicable.
The law ‘On narcotic and psychotropic substances’ was adopted in 1994, and with subsequent amendments it defines the rules on production, manufacturing, import, export, control and storage of, and trade in, narcotic and psychotropic substances. The list of controlled drugs is part of this law. The Criminal Code of the Republic of Albania was adopted in 1995.
In Albania, drug use is not specified as a distinct offence, while possession of small quantities for personal use is not punishable (Criminal Code, Art. 283). In 2008, the Supreme Court decided that a small quantity is a single dose for that individual, not a standardised amount. Above this, offenders will be charged with a trafficking offence. Following a conviction for drug possession, if the offender is a drug user, probation may include an order for treatment (Criminal Code, Art. 60/12).